XPS analysis is based on the principle of photoelectric effect. According to this, when the photon of high energy (hv) from an X-Ray source is incident on the sample the electrons of binding energy (Eb) are ejected along with kinetic energy (Ek). The characteristic binding energies are identified . The process is done under ultra-high vacuum, the X-Ray source generally used are AlKα (1486.6ev) or MgKα (1253.6ev). The spectrometer measures the kinetic energy, based on the below equation binding energies are calculated and the element present on sample surface are quantified.
hv = Eb +Ek +W
where W is the work function of spectrometer.
XPS is also known as Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis(ESCA)
Spin Orbit Splitting
Depending upon the energy of the radiation the X-Rays can penetrate few micrometre depth of sample. The quantification and identification of all surface elements except Hydrogen can be done by XPS testing such that any impurities present on the material surface can be identified.
Powders, thin film or liquid samples can be analysed in XPS. Liquid samples are drop cast into the silicon wafer or the substrate, where the powder samples are crushed into wafer or substrate so that they can stick onto it and extra sample is removed. Thin films can be analysed as it is, only a certain size of the thin film is required.For solid sample the sample should be 5mmx5mm and thickness should be more than 3mm.
XPS testing is very useful for materials industry like coatings, thin film, catalyst, pharmaceutical products, semiconductors, microelectronics, fabrics etc.
Sprint Testing Solutions has tie ups with the best XPS labs in India. Our XPS testing laboratories are known for great accuracy. You can discuss with us what specific parameters need to be followed for your samples analysis. Our experts can also help you interpret the results and provide you with a detailed XPS analysis report.