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X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Analysis

X-Ray Diffraction is one of the very effective analytical techniques to investigate the crystallinity of material. X-rays falls on the sample to generate diffraction, as the diffraction patterns are collected by the detector to evaluate d-spacing of the sample. The d-spacing of each material is unique; they are compared by standard reference database for identification. The diffracted patterns are generated when the interaction of the sample and the incident X-Ray satisfies the Bragg’s Law i.e nλ=2d sin θ; which is the basis of XRD analysis.

In powder XRD testing, the sample is preferred to be fine-grained as it ensures to achieve good signal to noise ratio and maximum particles participation in diffraction process. The minimum sample amount required for powder XRD sample preparation in a regular powder holder is 500mg. This is considered to be the bulk characterisation technique. For powder XRD 2θ ranges from 10 to 90◦ are typically used.

For XRD testing on solid samples, generally the sample is preferred to be polished to achieve an extreme flat surface free from any contamination. The surface is exposed to incident rays and the diffraction from the top is collected by the moving detector to determine the composition.

For thin films XRD analysis, as the material is supposed to be very thin the X-Ray beam is incident on sample at a small angle also known as Glancing/Grazing Incidence XRD (GIXRD). In this analytical study the incidence angle is fixed to capture diffraction pattern.


Unlike powder XRD analysis which is used for bulk analysis of polycrystalline material, Single Crystal X-ray Diffraction (SCXRD) is an analytical technique which provides detailed information about the internal lattice of single crystals which includes unit cell dimensions, bond lengths and bond angles.

Rietveld Analysis is a commonly used technique to refine XRD patterns. The calculation uses non-linear least square method to best fit the diffraction pattern by refining the peak width, lattice parameters etc. using a software interface.

Sprint Testing Solutions has facilities with state-of-art instruments for not just regular XRD but also GIXRD and SC XRD. Our XRD labs have capabilities to prepare samples wherever necessary with exact specifications as need for a particular measurement. Our experts also offer consultation to resolve your complex XRD patterns and refine them using Rietveld analysis to best quantify the results.

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